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May 05

Eilene M. Galloway (1906-2009)

It is with sadness that the International Institute of Space Law notes the passing of Eilene Marie Galloway on 2 May 2009. She had been recently diagnosed with inoperable cancer and lived her final days at home surrounded by family and friends. Monday 4 May would have been her 103rd birthday.

In the 15 May 2006 U.S. Congressional Record, in honour of her 100th birthday, Rep. Bart Gordon, chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee, called Dr Galloway �an influential force in the development and analysis of domestic and international space law and policy.”

Born less than three years after the Wright brothers’ first powered flight, Dr Galloway was a 1928 Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Swarthmore College.

She had worked with the Congressional Research Service of the United States Library of Congress in 1941, researching and writing House and Senate documents including “Guided Missiles in Foreign Countries” in 1957.

She was asked by the Senate after the launching of Sputnik to write the report on its impact to the United States.

On 29 July 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, leading to the birth of NASA. Dr Galloway was solely responsible for Section 205 on international cooperation in the Act.

On Dr Galloway’s advice, the origial proposal for a National Aeronautics and Space Agency was changed to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Eilene Galloway had been pivotal in helping to write the legislation, emphasizing international cooperation and peaceful exploration. She later served on nine NASA Advisory Committees, and continued to do so until 2003.

In the 1960s, she was America’s representative in drafting treaties governing the exploration and uses of outer space, helping launch the field of international space law.

Dr Galloway worked for several decades with the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS) and was also instrumental in creating the International Institute of Space Law. She was Vice President of the IISL between 1967 and 1979, becoming the Institute’s Honorary Director after that. She received the Andrew Haley Gold Medal in 1968 and the IISL’s Lifetime Achievement Award in 1990.

Dr Galloway received a NASA Public Service Award in 1987 “for her outstanding achievements of advising the Congress on legal and technical aspects of outer space, and for further services to the United Nations and other international organisations in helping to develop a rational basis for international space law.”

In 1999, Dr Galloway was awarded flag and crew emblems of the International Space Station “in appreciation for serving the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the nation as a member of the Advisory Committee on the International Space Station, and for your invaluable contribution in making the dream a reality.”

In her name, the International Institute of Space Law created the Eilene Galloway Award for Best Written Brief in the Manfred Lachs space law moot court competition from 2000 onwards and since 2006, the Eilene Galloway Symposium on critical issues in space law.

In March this year, Dr Galloway wrote a paper “Space Law for a Moon-Mars Program”, published in Space News.

The Institute availed of her valuable advice until her passing. As IISL Emeritus President Prof. Isabella Diederiks-Verschoor wrote in her tribute to Eilene Galloway in the 2006 IISL Proceedings: “She has lived her life of distinguished service to the U.S. and to the Space World and has been an inspiration to us all, and above all a reliable friend.”

 

Book of Memorial Tributes for Eilene Galloway

Dr. Galloway’s contribution to international law, and international space law in particular, has been a remarkable achievement. Her fruitful and dedicated work in this area, as well as training and encouraging of young professionals, earned her world-wide recognition and respect from specialists all over the world. Her presence will be sorely missed.

Mazlan Othman, Director, Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA), United Nations


I first met Eilene Galloway when I was just beginning my work on space law. She graciously welcomed me into her home and we talked for a very long time. I was impressed by how genuine she was and that she, who had accomplished so much, was willing to spend time with a novice in the field. My condolences to Jonathan and to the rest of your family.

Colleen M. Driscoll, Ph.D Director, The Kurtz Institute of Peacemaking


In my condition as Chairman of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, COPUOS and on behalf of all states members and permanent observers, I would like to express our condolence to Profesor Eilene Galloway´s family. I was fortunate to meet her for a very brief moment just enought to see in her brilliant eyes the soul of a profund loving person to whom we have an immense debt of gratitude.

Ambassador Ciro Arévalo-Yepes UN- COPUOS Chairman


Je présente mes condoléances les plus chaleureuses à toute la famille d’Eilene Galloway. Elle a été et demeurera toujours un phare doctrinal pour moi comme pour beaucoup de juristes. La lecture de ses réflexions et ses efforts pour développer le droit spatial a été pour moi un exemple remarquable. PArce que ses idées continueront de vivre et de fructifier, Eilene Galloway ne nou quitte pas vraiment.

Prof. Mireille Couston (France)


As a very long-time friend of Eilene these words are offered in her memory. Her creativity and steadiness of purpose in the entire area of outer space activity made her a world figure. Her good and faithful friends extend throughout the universe based on the enormous respect held for her and her significant contributions. Eilene was a living proof that a superbly qualified person can have a meaningful impact on a national government, on its very highest leaders, and on international organizations and institutions. Her’s was a life well lived. It is with sadness that we must acknowledge she is gone–but not forgotten. For me I have lost a very special friend.

Carl Q. Christol


Prof. Eilene Galloway whom I knew ever since my research works in space law almost from year 1964 or so.Prof. Galloway has been an outstanding scholar-philisopher who guided the development of space law in the formative stage. I have had the priviledge to work upon her great contributions that provide torchlight to present and future generations to use outer space law for human benefits, and for promoting a peaceful world order.Her passing away is a great loss to the world community.

Prof.Saligram Bhatt,former Prof. of Space Law,JNU,New Delhi,India.


Eilene was indeed one of the great International space lawyers. I had the privilege, although on limited opportunities, to listen to her present present on various topics while I was at the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. However, it was during group discussion periods that her profound knowledge of the geopolitical situations and compromises that led the international space community to agreements on key aspects of the international space legal regime came through best. It was also in those discussions that her steadfast internationalism came through. Although sad that Eilene has now left us, we are very fortunate to inherit the fruit of her work of many decades.

Sergio Camacho, Former Director, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs


During my whole tenure of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (and of course thereafter)Eilene Galloway was a constant source of inspiration and motivation and was certainly always first amongst those who guided and helped our work.It was a particular pleasure for myself and members of the Committee when she participated in our work. Her devotion to the idea of the rule of law in Outer Space is at the root of many of the advances that space law has seen over the years and she will also be an important and helpful point of reference for future space legislators.

Peter Jankowitsch

Past Chair,COPUOS


I met Ms. Galloway in 1979 when I was a Fellow at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. She provided a lot of support and ideas for my thesis on Transfer of Space Technology. I enjoyed very much our lunches at the Cosmos Club and the salad with cherry “bomb” tomatoes that would seem to explode when we tried to eat them… and the visits to her house, where we exchange ideas on how to move the rackoon living in her chimney..I think that you never die when you have planted so many seeds…

With Love,

Valnora Leister


Eilene Galloway sponsored my admission in to IISL a bit over 20 years ago!

During the inaugural class of the International Space University in 1988, I wrote a paper on the Common Heritage of Mankind, and the development of Lunar bases. When I left Boston after graduation, I returned to Washington D.C. My paper was selected for the Student section of the AIAA to be held in Bangalore, India. I wanted to make sure that my paper was vigorously reviewed and tested before I fulfilled this great honor and dream of delivering my first international paper. Eilene took the time, to thoughtfully and thoroughly review my paper and my arguments. Some of her comments were minor. Her biggest issue was that she felt that I should be much more optimistic about the role of international organization in the development of the rules of conduct for outer space.

But what made this encounter so special and so transformational?

Eilene was exceptionally, intelligent, knowledgeable, thorough and yes she was detailed oriented. But most striking was how passionate and idealistic she was about this great field of space law. She was one of the mothers of this great new movement. And the reason why she took the time out to meet with an overly enthusiastic student, was because she cared. She cared about the space law movement, and she cared about bringing new blood into the movement. She did not do this lightly, as a favor or to be polite (and she was wonderfully polite) but she did this because she really wanted to raise the overall level and the standards of this exhilarating endeavor of space…

When I look into the night skies, I will think of the remarkable impact that Eilene had on me and my collegues, and I will remian daunted at the stratsopheric standards, and the civility that she extended to all of us.

Godspeed!

Michael Potter


 

A personal note

My fondest memory of Eilene is when I met her at my very first IISL Colloquium in Innsbruck in 1986. We, a bunch of young space lawyers, were so happy and proud she would have coffee with us; we could hardly believe it! I can still remember how excited we were, and a bit nervous too, to meet all those great space lawyers whose books we had been studying to prepare our first paper. Eilene was encouraging and interested, and really made us feel good. We had our picture taken, and some time later she mailed me a copy, I was amazed she did that.

When I became secretary of the IISL a few years later, she was immediately in favour of my becoming Secretary with a big ‘S’ (i.e. member of the Board of Directors) a year later, in Montreal (1991). Then in 2007, when Nandi Jasentuliyana decided to step down and suggested that I become the next IISL President, Eilene was yet again fully supportive and helped pave the way for my election.

Her beautifully handwritten letters filled with crisp analysis will remain with me. So will her annual Christmas cards with the ‘space window’ of Washington National Cathedral that she always wrote, until this last Christmas.

That first encounter in the hills of Austria was the beginning of a beautiful friendship; I cherish her support and guidance during all these years and will do my best to live up to her standards and expectations.

Tanja Masson-Zwaan


Dear Jonathan,

This is to express all my sadness in learning that your dear and beloved Mother faded away at the eve of her birthday. I remember you always at her side whenever she attended our IISL meetings and you taught us the love and rerspect we all owe to our parents for their lifetime.

Her wisdom and the active contribution she gave to the progressive development of space law ever since its outstart will remain a cornerstone in the conquest of outer space by humankind.

Yours sincerely

Elisabeth

Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Back Impallomeni


I am so sorry to hear of the demise of one of our very distinguished and active member Dr. Eilene Galloway. She was a real pillar in many areas of international law, particularly, Space Law. She will be missed a lot. May her gentle soul rest in perfect peace, Amen. Best

Chris N. Okeke


Eileen was a towering figure in space culture.

On a personal note, she was the one in 1984 who asked me to start organising in the international astronautical congress for IAA the first art and literature sessions where artists as professionals could present side by side with their scientific and engineering peers, leading to the establishment of IAA commission VI on space activities and society and now to ITACCUS at IAF.

I am truly sadened tonight but at the same time joyous at acknowledging her crucial role in establishing a space culture on earth

Roger Malina


Requiescat in pace.

Sincerly,

Zeldine O’Brien


I got to know Eilene only in March 2009 when it was my great honour to interview her on behalf of the International Astronautical Federation. Submitting my questions via Corinne Jorgenson of the IISL, I received Eilene’s responses back in beautiful handwritten script. She had taken such care with the answers in what proved to be her final interview; I was truly astonished.

Reading other tributes I am sad not to have known Dr Galloway for longer – she was obviously a very special person and dear friend to a number of people. However I am very privileged to have had the one chance to get to know her.

Scott Hatton


I would like to express my sincerest condolences.

Christian Bruenner


Eilene Galloway was an outstanding expert in space law. Moreover she was a very close friend during many years. She will be missed badly, but her contributions to space law remain.

Isabella Diederiks-Verschoor.


The dear Eilene was the spur for all us when we became to study the outer space law and always the landmark and emulation in the University carrier. Dear Jonathan, we are close to you for this sad loss of the mother-teacher

Gabriella Catalano Sgrosso


Today, in Uruguay the Mother’s Day is celebrated. I think that, it is not by chance that I will refer to Mrs. Eilene Galloway, who added, to her condition of biological mother, the other one, most universal, of being a creator and precursor of the law and policy to be applied to outer space. And, like all mothers, she followed with lucidity and persistence the development of those favourable structures, pursuing cooperation and peace.

Similar to all great teachers, she guided us with total generosity in our first steps in these disciplines, as Eugene Pepin, Isabella Diederiks-Verschoor, Aldo Armando Cocca and Carl Q. Christol did it too, only to mention the precursors… The “passing away” of Eilene, allow me to appeal to memories (re-cordis) to revive in my heart, my first encounter with her. In 1982, I was invited by the Government of the United States, to make a trip of specialization and exchange in space sciences. During a month, I travelled across the country, from East to West, with a scale in Cape Kennedy, in order to attend the launching of the STS Columbia.

In my short stay in Washington, I fulfilled two essential commitments: my recognition to NASA for its collaboration with our Research Center and my visit to my Teacher’s home.

I arrived in time for the “five o clock tea” with a bouquet. But in fact, she dazzled me with the flowers she cultivated in her home and essentially with those that, invisible to the eyes, had the significance and permanence of the essential. She talked me about her son Jonathan, whom I met in Innsbruck in 1986, making both of us, presentations about Space Law education.

Without concealing her satisfaction, she also proposed me to visit the Library of Congress, so I could see the registries about my budding bibliography.

Historians of our remembered Teacher affirm that, from her youth, she was an assiduous reader of the Meditations of Marco Aurelio, that Roman emperor and stoic philosopher (121-180 A.C). I take one of them, which can well synthesize the work of Eilene: “A single one is the light of the sun, although walls, forests and uncountable impediments obstruct it; unique is the common substance although divided in multiple natures and particular limitations. One is the intelligent soul although it seems to be divided”.

Prof. Dr. Eduardo D. Gaggero Montevideo, May 10, 2009.


On behalf of the Centro de Investigación y Difusión Aeronáutico-Espacial I want to express our great sorrow for the loss of the distinguished and appreciated Dr. Galloway, who was Corresponding Member of CIDA-E since 1985.

Marta Gaggero


Eilene Galloway was a great jurist and an outstanding person. Her contribution to the establishment and development of the law of outer space cannot be overstated. I had the privilege of knowing Eilene for over 20 years and always admired her wisdom, tremendous expertise and cheerful personality, including a great sense of humor. I remember several years ago, when she was in her 90s, in response to my question as to how she was feeling, Eilene said: “Well, I have some pain in my knees, but below and above them I feel fine.” Eilene Galloway will be sorely missed.

Andrei Terekhov, Executive Director, Office of Administration of Justice, United Nations


I was sorry to learn about the decease of Eilene. I respect her many achievements. It is an honor to count myself as her fried and colleague.

Lubos Perek


I would like to express my sincere condolences, on behalf of the entire COSPAR community, to Dr. Galloway’s family and to the fraternity of space lawyers represented in the IISL for the recent passing of Eilene Galloway.

The importance of her contribution to the international community of lawyers, engineers, and scientists working in the domain of space is well known. She and her work are very highly respected throughout this community and profession, and her great contribution is part of the legacy of the first 50 years of the space age.

Roger Bonnet COSPAR President


I feel deeply sorry for the passing away of Dr. Galloway. It was a good memory for me to meet her every year in IISL annual meeting around the world. She certainly contributed to the present success of IISL for many years. I hope that she will look at us from the outer space from now on.

HASHIMOTO, Yasuaki Tokyo, JAPAN


Eilene was a dear friend and I miss her very much. I think she had two qualities that made her truly remarkable. First was her enthusiasm for the space program, which never waned over all these decades. She was already 51 years old when Sputnik was launched and had a rich and fulfilling career as a national defense expert for the U.S. Congress. But that day in October 1957 changed everything. She became an instant “space cadet” filled with fascination about the potential of the space program to help bring peace on Earth through international cooperation and with determination that space itself not become a theater of war. Second was her mentoring of so many people around the world who were interested in the legal and policy aspects of space. Her legacy is not only her direct contributions to the law that created NASA and her many studies and papers that helped guide the development of space policy, but the large number of her “pupils” who now can carry on her work.

Marcia Smith, Washington, D.C.


I express my deep condolences to Jonathan and the entire Galloway family on the recent passing of Dr. Eilene Galloway. I met her, for the first time, in 1979 at the Institute of Air and Space Law in Montreal, where I was doing my doctoral studies in space law. A few days after that, as promised, she sent me a copy of the US Senate Hearings on the Outer Space Treaty, which is an indispensable source for a proper space law research. Since then Eilene has been my mentor. It was a great pleasure for us in the Institute of Air and Space LAw to dedicate to her the recent issue of our Annals of Air and Space Law as well as our 2006 International and Interdisciplinary Workshop on Policy and Law Relating to Outer Space Resources. I met Eilene, the last time, in December 2008 when I visited her at her residence in Washington, DC, and had long and very interesting talk about our favorite passion; i.e. space law. I will always cherish the great memories of my meetings and conversations over the last thiry years with Eilene, who had since 1957 tirelessly advocated and promoted actively international cooperation and peaceful uses of outer space.

Ram Jakhu, the Institute of Air and Space Law. Montreal, Canada.


It is with my deepest concern, sadness, and condolence that I have learned about the death of Eilene Galloway,. She was one of the founders of the Interntional Institute of Space Law, back in 1961. But above that, she was editor, I may say creator, of the US Senate publication “Legal Problems of Space Wxploration”. This was an opus that really opened the door for international Space Law studies. Everyone should have read – or read even now – her excellent introduction on p. XIff of that book. I have sent my personal expression of condolence to her son, the distinguished Professor and Space Lawyer Jonathan Galloway. Eilene Galloway will always be remembered by all of us Space Lawyers, and her colleagues and friends.

Ernst Fasan, Dir.hc of IISL


With Eilene Galloway I lost a dear friend and mentor: we first met more than three decades ago in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space where I had just started my work as the legal adviser of my Delegation (Germany). I learnt from Eilene’s experience, political foresight and criticism and enjoyed her friendship until the end of her life. I deeply miss her wisdom, amity and encouragement.

Marietta Benkö, Institute of Air and Space Law, Cologne University


I was honored to have known and admired Eilene Galloway. Our destinies coincided for over half a century during which I admired her dedication to space law and her exceptional contributions to space legislation and research.

In 1976, I was appointed Director of the Institute of Air and Space Law by McGill University and I consider the foundation of a special publication to be named the Annals of Air and Space Law (Annals).

Many times when I was at a crossroad, I would meet Eilene at her favorite Cosmos Club to have her precious advice and enlightment. I considered her the only person who could give me a decisive answer as to the potential success of such an endeavor as the Annals. Not only she encouraged me to publish the Annals if possible the same year but she sent me an excellent leading article of the first issue. Later she continued enriching many other volumes with her visionary articles (vol. I, III, IV, V, VII and IX).

Years later, in 1996, I received Social Sciences Book Award from the International Academy of Astronautics “for outstanding achievement as evidenced by the publication of the Annals of Air and Space law”.

It was more than well deserved that, on the occasion of Eilene’s 100th birthday, the Institute of Air and Space Law dedicate a volume to her (2006 – Vol. XXXI).

Eilene will be sorely missed but her ideas will continue to be carried out by people she so proudly inspired.

Rest in peace, Eilene.

Nicolas Mateesco Matte


I first met Eilene in the early 1970s when I started looking for a job in or close to Space Law, after earning my LL.M. in International Law at GWU in Washington, D.C.. She had great advice, such as to keep things short if you want them to be read in Washington as no one has any time to read anything (I had just shown her a very long article I was working on). It was good advice and I have followed it since. Over the years I would look forward to meeting her at the IAF/IISL and other conferences around the world. She was always an inspiration due to her dedication to the study of Space Law and to her helping of students and fellow professionals with ideas and encouragement. She also helped me to obtain publication of one of my first law review articles.

My sympathy goes out to Jonathan and the entire family. It was a life well spent!

George Paul Sloup


With the passing away of Eilene Galloway space law has lost its Grandmother, as is very clear from all the testimonies to her key role and enduring enthusiasm in promoting the cause of space law, and through it, of the peaceful development of space. Who does not remember the accident of her finger being crushed to the bone by accident during an IAC, where she insisted on being back at the IISL colloquium as soon as the hospital had managed to get her hand bandaged appropriately – she was well over ninety years old by then! In addition, her support of young and not-so-young space lawyers has been evidenced amply in those testimonies, as was of course her sharp intelligence – lest anybody could have been fooled by the knitting needles she sometimes brought to space law meetings.

One side of Eilene that may not have been brought to the fore in all of the above that much is her unique wittiness, combining a sharpness of mind with a modest and warm understanding of humanity also at the personal level. I had the privilege to sit next to her at both gala dinners during what must probably have been the last occasion Eilene was able (see the famous statement on the knee quoted by Andrej Terekhov) to join us for an IAC and IISL Colloquium. In Houston in 2002, she told me a number of wonderful stories, like the one in which she was made, in recognition of her many achievements for the US space endeavour, Admiral of the Navy – of Texas, which did not have its own real navy since many years, so that indeed it was an honorary title only, which she told me with a twinkle in her eye she greatly regretted. But the best one, the one that probably captures most of her personality, was the following.

In the early days of developing a US space policy Eilene, as the one given the task to work on such a policy, was summoned by then-Senate majority leader Lyndon Johnson to fly to the UK for the purpose of briefing that closest of US allies on these developments, as these had after all many military- and security-related aspects to them. In fact, a special plane was chartered for picking her up and flying her immediately across the Atlantic for the purpose. Upon the late night arrival in the UK, immediately after the plane had come to a standstill on the tarmac the pilot came up to Eilene and said: “Ma’am, we have received an invitation for a late dinner by our hosts, would you please join us?” Eilene begged to be excused on account of the long flight, and indicated she preferred to stay on the plane, get some proper sleep and prepare for next morning’s sessions. The pilot, however, then started to shuffle somewhat uneasily, and when Eilene asked what the matter was, explained in an embarrassed tone: “Well, ma’am, you see, by regulation it is only allowed to charter a special plane like this one for someone with the rank of a four-star general, so Lyndon Johnson just had you promoted to a four-star general for the purpose. Which makes you the highest officer on board, which in turn means that if you don’t leave the plane, nobody gets to leave the plane…” Upon which Eilene, whom of course could not find it in her heart to refuse the crew their chance to see the London nightlife, graciously agreed to join for dinner.

I feel it is in this spirit that we should remember Eilene: a four-star general and Admiral of the Texan Navy in terms of intellect and perspicacity, needle-knitting a safety-net of legal rules and obligations for peaceful space exploration and use, and at the same time endowed with the modest and warm humanity to see the humour and relativity of it all – and the graciousness to give the crew their due.

Frans von der Dunk, Harvey and Susan Perlman Alumni / Othmer Professor of Space Law, University of Nebraska-Lincoln


I was fortunate to watch a pre-recorded interview of Ellene. Her contribution to the NASA Act and space law in general will be fondly remembered. May her soul rest in peace.

V.S. Mani


I met Eilene when I was developing a paper for the Bangalore IAF/IISL meeting. Since her name appeared in so many citations, I called her and she invited me to her home, as she has invited so many others. Over the years, her warmth, intellectual generosity, and idealism bound me to her for life. More than anything, I will miss the best friend a person could have.

JoAnn Clayton Townsend, Washington DC


I first met Eilene at the Innsbruck IISL Colloquium in 1986, which I was able to attend quite by chance. It was also the occasion of my first presentation of a paper on space law and telecommunications satellites, and boy! was I nervous, especially because the only people that had a copy of my paper were Eilene and Dr. Isabella Diederiks-Verschoor. They kindly let me have my paper, so that I could make my presentation. (I returned it to them at the end of the Colloquium). I moved to Washington DC a few months later, and lived not far from Eilene, but I was in such awe of this wonderful lady that I didn’t dare call her. A couple of years later, I finally got the courage to call her, and made an appointment to go see her shortly before the World Space Congress in 1992. She was so gracious and gentle, that I felt badly for myself, and silly, for not having called her before. After that first invitation to tea at her home, we became friends, and would have tea and even dinner occasionally.

One day she called me, saying that she was “so agitated” (one of her pet words) and had to answer someone’s letter, but didn’t want to wait for it to go out by regular mail. I suggested that she get a FAX machine, an idea that intrigued her. I told her I could take her to look at them, to see if she would like to buy one. So off we went to the Office Depot near her house, and 10 minutes later, we came out with a new FAX machine for Eilene. I installed it for her, and she was able to respond to the letter, and get over her agitation in no time…

I have so many wonderful memories of Eilene, and of her gentle but acute sense of humour! One time, she showed me a letter an organization had sent her, asking her if she would be its Secretary. She declined the invitation, replying that they should get someone younger for the position, someone in their early 80s… (Eilene was about 87 at the time).

Like so many people, I am deeply indebted to Eilene for her helping me grow in knowledge of space law; she was always willing to discuss events or issues that I may have been writing about, and share her learned opinions on them. I could never repay her willingness to mentor me, and so many others, but if we, in turn, can be as open and helpful to younger space lawyers, perhaps this is the best way of repaying Eilene, and ensuring that her legacy continues.

I visited Eilene in March, and took her some yellow flowers. She often mentioned that every house should have a room painted in yellow, so that on gray days, it would seem that the sun was still shining. She loved the yellow flowers, and had them placed where she could see them from her bed. We spoke about space law, about space debris, about some of her accomplishments, as well as more mundane matters. What a privilege to have been able to spend two hours with her! I kissed her good-bye, and inside me, I said farewell to the matriarch of space law. She is now with other celestial bodies, in that infinite cosmos that she cared so much about. God bless Eilene.

Sylvia Ospina


It is with profound grief that we have learned of the death of Mrs Eilene Galloway. Through her contributions to space law and policy and her efforts to promote international cooperation among space-faring countries, she has helped shape the first half century of space age.

Mrs. Galloway has also enriched the International Astronautical Federation and, in so doing, helped establish the International Institute of Space Law and support the International Academy of Astronautics.

I would like to kindly ask you to convey our condolences to her family and to the space law community.

Prof. Dr. Berndt Feuerbacher, President, International Astronautical Federation


Dear Jonathan,

This is to express my condolences with the passing away of your beloved mother and the woman who did so much for the progressive development of space law. Her life-long work in this field of law and her devotion and enthousiasm will be an example for many others. I hope this will help you in coping with the grief of missing her as a mother and not in the last place as an inspiring collegue.

Hanneke van Traa-Engelman, Rotterdam, The Netherlands


I met Dr. Eilene M. Galloway for the first time in Oslo, Norway, during the IAF Congress/IISL Colloquium in 1995. I have been keeping in touch with her by telephone, because she was more than a mother to me – kind,caring,tender-hearted and inspiring. Her christmas cards brought joy and happiness to the recepients – reminding them that they were always in her thoughts. She was a gift and a blessing from the Lord to all of us. May her precious and noble soul rest in peace. Amen

Maurice N. Andem


Much of what I am saying here, at this sad time, I had a happy occasion to say in my message to the 2nd Eilene M. Galloway Symposium, when Eilene was still with us. I had the privilege of enjoying Eilene’s friendship for many decades. For the first time, we met at the International Astronautical Congress in Stockholm back in 1960. Since, we frequently met and worked together at the annual colloquia on the law of outer space, meetings of the IISL Board and other occasions. Once I had the pleasure to receive Eilene and show her around the famous Peace Palace in The Hague and the museum of the Inernational Court of Justice housed therein. Like so many other colleagues, I always admired her vast knowledge and experience, unquenchable interest in all aspects of life, her sense of humor. One may ask how it is possible that mutual respect and sincere friendship connected the two persons with such different backgrounds, who had lived most of their lives in the States ideologically and militarily opposed to each other. I would think that an answer to this question can be found in the most insightful paper presented by Jonathan Galloway at the 1st Eilene M. Galloway Symposium. In his paper Jonathan spoke of “the abiding concerns and dreams”of his mother in the field of space law and of her having been “a fervent advocate” of the international civil space programs of the United States of America. Eilene Galloway’s lasting and passionate devotion to the cause of international space cooperation and to the development of legal regulation of space activity has forever gained her respect and affection of the world space community. I would like to finish this tribute to the memory of my dear friend with the words from one of the last New Year Greetings I received from Eilene. In her caracteristic calligraphic handwriting, Eilene has written, among other things: “I think of the years since we met in Sweden and all that has happened in Outer space. So wonderful we have had peace from Outer space to the earth for some 47 years. And now hope this will continuë”.

Vladlen S. Vereshchetin

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Dr. Eilene Galloway was a pioneer in space law and a wonderful inspiration to us all. In my capacity as head of the Legal and Business Support Department (Agency Affairs) of the German Aerospace Center, I had the opportunity to see the direct impact of her enduring legacy on international space law. Dr. Galloway will be missed. I send my condolences to her family, also on behalf of the colleagues in my Department.

Dr. Bernhard Schmidt-Tedd

Legal and Business Support Department (Agency Affairs)

German Aerospace Center (DLR)

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It is with deep sadness that I heard of the passing away of Dr. Eilene Galloway. The occasions I had the honour to meet her, even if they were few, were most impressive and most encouraging. In the summer of 2000 I had sent her within the work of our research some materials of the Project 2001 Workshop on the International Space Station. She thanked with one of her wonderfully worded letters, saying – in her very gracious way – that when the package arrived she had felt “as if it were Christmas” and that the material was exactly what she needed for her work in the NASA Space Flight Advisory Committee. Of course, it was reverse: Eilene Galloway had created Christmas in July by her unexpected, gentle words!

My condolences go to Dr. Jonathan Galloway, her family and all those who loved her,

Susanne Reif

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I am honored to have known and experienced the intelligence and friendship of Eilene. Everyone knows or should have known that part of Eilene that was her public side. I was honored and privileged to have received her loving friendship when it most was needed.

When I lost my cat of twenty years, Eilene wrote to me a long and touching letter about the cat she had as a girl. At a very young age she recognized the many sides of her cat and gave her eight names. These were very sophisticated names and showed the brilliance of a child at a young age. To me, it showed me the side of Eilene that was friendship and love. She had tolerance and desire for intelligent conversations and writings. Likewise, she had the gift of giving loving friendship when I most needed it, as well as others.

A very funny thing happened when I sent a photo from the Ranch. Eilene received it and immediately wrote back. She thought what a beautiful picture of me in such a gorgeous dress. Then she looked more closely and thought what skinny legs I had: Then she realized that she had received and had been looking at a photo of one of our PEACOCKS in full bloom. I could see her laughing with her beautiful smile and eyes. Then her distant laugh hit Les and me. We laughed together the miles apart. I really did feel complimented that she would think I was as beatiful as a peacock, but the skinny legs were too much.

People throughout the world will miss Eilene. Jonathan, to you and the rest of your family I send my condolences, knowing that nothing will fill the void you are feeling. In many ways I feel fulfillment in having known several sides of Eilene and will continue to miss her at unexpected times. Our memories of you will keep Eilene alive in each of us and as such, she will continue to guide us through difficult times in space law and in other personal ways.

Patricia Margaret Sterns

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It was with great sadness that we learned of Eilene’s passing. She was one of the first friends I made in the Institute, and she was very supportive and helpful over the years. Eilene made a significant and lasting contribution to the preservation of outer space for peaceful purposes, which she termed a tangible benefit of space law.

I extend condolences to Jonathan and the entire family. We will all miss Eilene.

Les Tennen

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I first met Eilene Galloway in 1989 at the 32nd IISL Colloquium in Malaga-Torremolinos. I already knew her writing, but to meet one so influential in the development of space law was a privilege. It was also interesting for her mind was so active, and her sense of humour infectious. She was also encouraging to a re-entrant into the space community, encouragement which continued down through the years including lunch at the Cosmos Club or at her home when I visited Washington. Like so many I am glad to have known her.

Francis Lyall, Scotland.

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When I first met Eilene, just after completing my first law degree at the University of Buenos Aires, I was thrilled. I had heard so much about her from Ambassador Aldo A. Cocca and Professor Manuel A. Ferrer when I was a student in Argentina. In later years, back in England, I had the pride and joy of corresponding with Eilene – never missing a Christmas greeting from her – and of working together at a number of international meetings on the law of outer space. Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, Vienna, Brussels, Munich, Brighton are so full of nostalgic memories linked to Eilene. Over the years, and particularly in the framework of IISL Colloquia, we learnt many lessons from her, not only on space matters but on many other aspects of academic life. And life itself.

Her very simplicity was impressive. I shall ever remember, in more recent years, a summer afternoon in Vienna during UNISPACE III having tea with Eilene and my daughter Viviane – who also had the privilege of meeting her. All three of us were enjoying tea with the famous viennese pastries and chatting about fashion trends, a favourite topic we later resumed at the Cologne Golf Club on the occasion of a Colloquium organised by our friend Karl H. Böckstiegel in May 2001. That evening Eilene was wearing a turquoise dress with matching bracelet and earrings. She looked splendid and sparkled as we entered deeper analysis of the world of fashion.

These mementos are meant as a modest tribute to a very admirable lady. We shall miss her for ever.

Maureen Williams